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Galdós also used this double entendre in real-life conversations with other men. El Bachiller Corchuelo reports that he once asked Galdós' opinion of «una moza alta, guapetona, de muchas carnes», and Don Benito replied: «¡Bah!... Parece un rosbif mal asado». (Cited by William H. Shoemaker, «¿Cómo era Galdós?», Anales Galdosianos, 8 [1973], 17.) (N. del A.)



«Tristana», in Obras completas, III (Madrid: Aguilar, 1973), 1119-20. (N. del A.)



Leopoldo Alas, Galdós (Obras completas, I) (Madrid: Renacimiento, 1912), pp. 251-52; and in William H. Shoemaker, The Novelistic Art of Galdós, III (Valencia: Albatros-Hispanófila, 1980), 74, n. 1. (N. del A.)



Peter A. Bly, Galdós' Novel of the Historical Imagination, Liverpool Monographs in Hispanic Studies (Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983), pp. 165-66; Sherman H. Eoff, The Novels of Pérez Galdós: The Concept of Life as a Dynamic Process (St. Louis: Washington University Studies, 1954), p. 50. (N. del A.)



Walter T. Pattison, Benito Pérez Galdós (Boston: Twayne, 1975), p. 125. (N. del A.)



H. C. Berkowitz, Pérez Galdós: Spanish Liberal Crusader (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1948), p. 314. Among modern critics, Shoemaker appears to stand alone in regarding Tristana as one of Galdós' best novels (p. 76). (N. del A.)



Roberto G. Sánchez, «Galdós' Tristana, Anatomy of a 'Disappointment'», Anales Galdosianos, 12 (1977), 111-27. (N. del A.)



Among the critics who have treated Tristana primarily as a polemical document are Pattison, pp. 124-25; Ruth A. Schmidt, «Tristana and the Importance of Opportunity», Anales Galdosianos, 9 (1974), 135-44; Leon Livingstone, «The Law of Nature and Women's Liberation in Tristana», Anales Galdosianos, 7 (1972), 93-100; Joaquín Casalduero, Vida y obra de Galdós (Madrid: Gredos, 1951), pp, 125-30. The debate over the novel's feminism is polarized by Livingstone, who takes the position that Tristana's problems derive from her defiance of natural law and her attempts to be a man; and Schmidt, who attributes Tristana's difficulties entirely to social and economic repression of women. Three important studies that concentrate on the novel's literary, rather than polemical, values are Gonzalo Sobejano, «Galdós y el vocabulario de los amantes», Anales Galdosianos, 1 (1966), 85-100; Germán Gullón, «Tristana: Literaturización y estructura novelesca», Hispanic Review, 45 (1977), 13-27; and Sánchez. All these studies acknowledge the presence of a feminist theme but see it as being of only secondary importance for purposes of defining Tristana as a novel. I concur with this viewpoint. (N. del A.)



These explanations are advanced or explored by Pardo Bazán, Clarín, Shoemaker, and Sánchez; also by Gilbert Smith, «Galdós' Tristana and Letters from Concha-Ruth Morell», Anales Galdosianos, 10 (1975), 91-120. Berkowitz's assertion (repeated by Pattison) that Galdós himself had a low opinion of Tristana is convincingly refuted by Sánchez, p. 112. (N. del A.)



Livingstone sees a resolution of these tensions in the marriage of Tristana and Lope. (N. del A.)