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Volume 77 Number 3 September 1994

The American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, Inc.

                     President                           Executive Council
Jean Carolyn Williams (1994) (The current President, Vice President, Executive Director, Editor, the retiring Editor, and the three most recent past Presidents [indicated by asterisks] are members ex officio).
Carrolton City Schools
Carrolton, Georgia
Vice-President Lauren G. Bearden (1995)
Jean S. Chittenden (1994) S. D. Lee H. S., Columbus, Ms.
Trinity University
*Donald W. Bleznick (1996)
  Executive Director University of Cincinnati
Lynn A. Sandstedt (1995)
University of Northern Colorado at Greeley James R. Chatham (1996)
Mississippi State University
Editor of Hispania
Estelle Irizarry (1995) Joanna Courteau (1994)
Georgetown University Iowa State University
*Elvira García (1995)
University of Nebraska at Omaha
*Nasario García (1994)
New Mexico Highlands University
Carol A. Klee (1996)
University of Minnesota
Dorothy L. Rudy (1994)
Florida Atlantic University
Theodore A. Sackett (1995)
University of Southern California
Kathleen Zajac Steers (1996)
Salem High School, Salem, N. H.
Thomas M. Stephens (1995)
Rutgers University

     HISPANIA, the official journal of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, Inc., is published in the months of March, May, September, and December. Known office of publication: AATSP, 106 Gunter Hall, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639.

     Second-class postage paid at Greeley, CO and at additional mailing offices. Publication number 246360.

     Postmaster: Send address changes to Hispania, AATSP, 106 Gunter Hall, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639.

     SUBSCRIPTION to Hispania is part of the membership in the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, Inc., $30.00 a year for individuals and $15.00 for students for a maximum of three years. Membership is open to all persons interested in Spanish or Portuguese. Library and institutional subscriptions are $30.00 a year. All subscriptions are due and payable in advance. Requests for sample copies should be addressed to the Executive Director of the Association, Professor Lynn A. Sandstedt, AATSP, 106 Gunter Hall, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO 80639. E-mail: ISANDSTE@GOLDNG8.UNIVNORTHCO.EDU

     EDITORIAL COMMUNICATIONS AND SUBMISSIONS: Send to the Editor, Professor Estelle Irizarry, Spanish Department, Georgetown University, Washington, D. C. 20057-1089. E-mail: HISPANIA@GUVAX.BITNET or HISPANIA@GUVAX.GEORGETOWN.EDU. See Guide for Authors for editorial policies.

     BOOKS FOR REVIEW: Send to the Book Review Editor, Professor Janet Pérez, Associate Dean, Graduate School, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409.

     ADVERTISING: Address all communications to the Advertising Manager, Professor Walter C. Oliver, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, California State University, 3483 Circle Road, San Bernardino, CA 92405. E-mail: WOLIVER@WILEY.CSUSB.EDU Instructions for preparation of camera-ready art and advertising rates are available on request.

     Please notify the Executive Director promptly of changes of address.


                          Editor Associate Editors           
Estelle Irizarry (1995) Fredrick A. de Armas (1995) John G. Weiger (1995)
Georgetown University Pennsylvania Sate University The University of Vermont
Production Editor Daniel Balderston (1996) Raymond Leslie Williams (1995)
Joseph A. Feustle, Jr. (1995) Tulane University The University of Colorado-Boulder
The University of Toledo
Peter A. Bly (1995) Richard D. Woods (1994)
Book Review Editor Queen's University-Kingston, Ont Trinity University
Janet Pérez (1995)
Texas Tech University Joanna Courteau (1996) Emilia de Zuleta (1995)
Iowa State University Universidad Nacional de Cuyo-Mendoza
Advertising Manager
Walter C. Oliver (1995) Frank A Domínguez (1995) Editor's Advisory Council
California State University San Bernardino University of North Carolina Donald W. Bleznick
Editor, (1975-83)
University of Cincinnati
Charles B. Faulhaber (1995)
University of California-Berkeley Robert G. Mead, Jr.
Editor, (1957-62)
University of Connecticut
Howard M. Fraser (1995)
College of William and Mary Seymour Menton
Editor, (1963-65)
University of California-Irvine
Dick Gerdes (1995)
University of New Mexico-Albuquerque Irving P. Rothberg
Editor, 1966-74
University of Massachusetts
T. Edward Harvey (1995)
Brigham Young University-Hawaii Theodore A. Sackett
Editor, 1984-92
University of Southern California
Naomi Hoki Moniz (1996)
Georgetown University
Roberta Johnson (1995)
University of Kansas-Lawrence
Susan Kirkpatrick (1996)
University of California-San Diego
Mark D. Larsen (1995)
Utah State University
John Lipski (1995)
University of New Mexico-Albuquerque
Gladys C. Lipton (1995)
University of Maryland-Baltimore County
Ivette López Jiménez (1995)
Universidad de Puerto Rico-Bayamón
Bárbara Mújica (1995)
Georgetown University
Robert A. Quinn (1995)
Millaps College
Richard A. Raschio (1996)
University of St. Thomas
Karen L. Smith (1995)
University of Arizona

Guide for Authors


     Hispania invites submission of original, unpublished articles on Hispanic or Luso-Brazilian literature, language, linguistics, and pedagogy written in Spanish, Portuguese, or English. Only members of AATSP may publish in Hispania. We strongly encourage authors to submit articles written in Spanish and Portuguese.

     The first section includes scholarly articles on Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian literature and language that are judged to be of interest to specialists in the subject areas as well as to a diverse readership of teachers of Spanish and Portuguese. Articles for this section should display thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the subject and field. We prefer articles that are not narrow in scope. Further considerations in the evaluation of manuscripts are their contribution to the advancement of knowledge, originality of method or focus, organization, and clarity of expression, free from jargon. Lead articles should conform to MLA format, with length between 4,000 and 7,500 words, including endnotes and works cited. Bibliographical submissions may reach 20,000 words. The long-standing policy in this section and in departments that receive a large number of submissions is that publication may not exceed one article per author during a three-year period.

     Initial submissions of articles for the first section should be in electronic form only, on diskette or sent by electronic mail (for fastest processing). Please do not send paper copy, except for graphic images, complex tables, and articles in linguistics that use special characters.

     Articles for Departments may be not on paper and/or disk. See the following pages for instructions on submitting to Departments. Please double space throughout on papers, but single space text in word processor files.

     Send all articles, for the first section as well as for Departments, to Dr. Estelle Irizarry, Editor of Hispania, Spanish Department Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057-0989, or send via electronic mail.

News, Notes, and Reviews

     Please send news and notes directly to the Preparers of Chapter News, Computers in Research and Teaching, The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World, Multimedia, and Professional News, following their indications regarding types of submissions, length, and mailing. Requests to review software should go directly to the Preparers of the Media/Computers Department, at the addresses listed. Instructions for Book Reviews are found in that section.

General Format for All Articles

     Enclose a card with your name, institutional affiliation, mailing address, telephone (and fax) number(s), and e-mail address, but do not include this information in the article itself. Please write the title of your submission on this card.

     In typing the article, be careful not to include your name in a page header or in evident self-reference; any references to your previous writings should be in the third person so your identity is not obvious. Center the title on one line and, at the margin below, type the word �Abstract:� followed by a concise summary of no more than 150 words. Below that, type �Key Words:� and list up to ten terms of importance, separated by commas, for a subject index, for example: �19th century, Pardo Bazán (Emilia), Spanish literature, women's writing, narrative�. The abstract and key words should be in the same language as the essay.

     The format must be strictly in accordance with the standard system of the 1985 MLA Style Manual, with parenthetical documentation and list of works cited. The author-date system as described in the MLA Style Manual is acceptable for linguistics and pedagogy. If you include notes, they must be manually typed out at the end, regardless of whether you have entered them as �endnotes� in your word processor. Please follow the MLA's recommendation to avoid essays like �content notes� that detract from the primary text.

     Place all tables and charts mentioned in the text at the very end of the entire article or in a separate file. Send graphic images on paper only.

Typing Conventions

     The electronic text should have single-spaced lines, with one-inch side margins. Type the whole text in one font style and size. Please use the TAB key or first line auto-indent feature of your word processor -not the space bar- to begin new paragraphs, and the TAB key to create columns in tables. Do not divide words with hyphens. Use standard typewriter style quotes and apostrophes, not curly �Smart Quotes� or angular quotes, and type two single hyphens for a dash.

Submissions by Electronic Mail

     This preferred method of submission allows us to acknowledge receipt and route the article to evaluators immediately. Be sure to send ASCII text only and replace all diacritics, foreign-language characters, and italics with the codes found in Hispania's computer section (�How to Prepare Text for Submission via Electronic Mail�). Send articles to either of the following addresses:



Submissions on Disk

     Authors may send PC-formatted diskettes of any size; Mac diskettes must be high density (with the initials HD on them and formatted for high density). We can accept files in the following word processor formats: WordPerfect 5. 1/5. 2 for PC (6.0 users must save the file as 5. 1/5. 2) and Mac; Microsoft Word (PC [Word for Windows 6. 0 users must save the file as 2.0] and Mac), XyWrite III Plus, Nota Bene 3. 0, and MacWrite. Any other word processor can be used if it can save documents as a WordPerfect 5. 1/5. 2 file. Mac and PC users, please turn off the �Fast Save� option. Identify the type of computer (IBM or Mac) and word processing programs on the disk label.

     Mail diskettes in a protected envelope, enclosing a letter-size, self-addressed envelope with loose first-class return postage or international reply coupons for two ounces to:

     Dr. Estelle Irizarry, Editor


     Spanish Department

     Georgetown University

     Washington, DC 20057-0989

     N. B. Please note that all articles accepted for publication in Hispania are subject to the terms of the contract which appears in Section 3.

Hispania Departments and Features


     Send ARTICLES for Departments on paper with loose stamps and/or on disk (IBM Wordperfect preferred) to the EDITOR of Hispania, Spanish Dept., Georgetown University, Wash., DC 20057-0989, or by electronic mail to HISPANIA@GUVAX.GEORGETOWN.EDU or HISPANIA@GUVAX. Do not send articles to Preparers. Please indicate the name of the Department to which you are submitting. See instructions below for requirements regarding length and type of submissions. Not all Departments will publish in all issues, since publication of articles depends on approval by peer review.


     Send this type of submission directly to the PREPARERS of Chapter News, Computers in Research and Teaching, The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World, Multimedia, and Professional News. See addresses and instructions below. Deadlines are four months before the month of publication.

     Applied Linguistics

     Dr. Karen L. Smith

     The University of Arizona

     ARTICLES (3000-6250 words) on analytical approaches to language learning: field and classroom research that expands our knowledge of the nature of the language as related to such topics as language acquisition, assessment, proficiency, and collaborative learning. Articles must be research oriented; focus should not be anecdotal.

     Chapter News

     Dr. Juan R. Franco

     Tarrant Co. Junior College

     4026 Browser #106, Dallas, TX 75219

     fax (817) 656-6601

     Chapter secretaries/treasurers may send REPORTS of the proceedings of chapter meetings for publication in each issue of Hispania. Summaries of up to 300 words may be written in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. There is no limit to the number of issues to which a chapter may submit materials. Send to Dr. Franco on paper, disk (Mac or IBM) or by fax.

     Computers in Research and Teaching

     Dr. Mark D. Larsen

     Department of Languages and Philosophy

     Utah State University,

     Logan, UT 84322-0720

     e-mail: LARSEN@CC.USU.EDU

Assisted by:

     Dr. Joseph A. Feustle, Jr.

     University of Toledo

     ARTICLES of up to 5,000 words on the use of computers for research, productivity, communications, word processing, desktop publishing, text analysis, and language instruction. Also NOTES and REPORTS of up to 2,000 words, and REVIEWS (contact Preparer first). Send NOTES and REPORTS to Dr. Larsen via electronic mail, on disk (Mac or IBM), or on paper, with a stamped, self-addressed envelope.

     The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World

     Dr. T. Edward Harvey

     World Languages,

     Box 1833, Brigham Young University Hawaii

     Laie, HI 96762-1833


     NOTES and NEWS of exciting cultural happenings and international literary awards in Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian countries, as well as timely bibliographies and brief necrologies. Each item should be under 1,000 words (quoted excerpts should not exceed 150 words). No travel accounts, interviews, or opinion editorials, please. Send items to Dr. Harvey on paper, disk, or by electronic mail.


     Dr. Richard A. Raschio

     University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN

     Assisted by:

     Dr. Roberta Lavine (Reviews)

     Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese

     Jiménez Hall 2215

     University of Maryland

     College Park, MD 20742

     ARTICLES of 5,000 words or less involving such media as film, satellite TV, videotapes, audiotapes, and laboratories. Studies relating media to literary, linguistic, or methodological topics are welcome. Articles should be based on experience, research, or innovation. REVIEWS (contact Dr. Lavine first) on materials, equipment, and projects. REPORTS of up to 1,000 words; send on disk (WordPerfect or ASCII) or paper with stamped, self-addressed envelope, or by electronic mail to Dr. Raschio at University of St. Thomas, Mail #4169, 2115 Summit Avenue. St. Paul, MN 55105;


     Pedagogy: Colleges and Universities

     Dr. Robert A. Quinn.

     Millsaps College, Jackson, MS

     ARTICLES of up to 5000 words on practical applications, strategies, comparative studies, curriculum development, and research-based innovations in the methodology of teaching language, culture, and literature related to Spanish and Portuguese. No simple descriptions, �lesson-plan type material�, or �success stories� of your own classes and programs, please.

     Pedagogy: Community Colleges

     Dr. Zelda Brooks

     The College of Staten Island

     ARTICLES of up to 5,000 words and IDEAS to 1,500 words on community-based instruction: teaching the non-traditional population, adult education, Spanish for special purposes, courses that meet once a week or at night, community relations and resources, cooperative and service projects, the two-year curriculum, reading, oral proficiency, and special uses of labs and technology.

     Pedagogy: Elementary and Middle Schools, FLES*(W-8)

     Dr. Gladys, C. Lipton

     The University of Maryland/Baltimore County Campus

     ARTICLES of up to 6,000 words that provide practical insights into pedagogy, research, second language acquisition by children, successful classroom techniques, use of all kinds of materials and technology, teacher training, and curriculum. We also invite IDEAS (750 words or less) that focus on practical ideas and successful classroom activities.

     Pedagogy: Secondary Schools

     Nancy Wheaton Modem

     University of New Hampshire

     ARTICLES of up to 5,000 words providing insights into pedagogy, classroom activities, uses of technology, linking language skills with other disciplines, culture, strategies and materials for reading, and proficiency techniques from introductory through advanced levels of speaking and writing. Also, IDEAS of up to 1500 words on practical ideas and topic-related vocabulary.

     Professional News

      Dr. Eduardo Zayas-Bazán

      Dept. of Foreign Langs.

     East TN State Univ., Box 70,666

     Johnson City, TN 37614-0666


     BRIEF ITEMS (to 1,000 words) relating to the profession of teaching Spanish and Portuguese in the following categories: News Items, Awards and Honors, Recent Releases, Forthcoming Events, and Obituaries. Send news, written in Spanish, Portuguese, or English, to Dr. Zayas-Bazán. Paper, disk (WordPerfect 5. 1), or e-mail.

     Theoretical Linguistics

     Dr. John Lipski

     University of New Mexico

     Articles (3000-7500 words) should either use an accepted theoretical framework to enhance our understanding of Spanish and Portuguese, or use data from the latter to extend linguistic theory. Purely descriptive and speculative articles are discouraged.