Selecciona una palabra y presiona la tecla d para obtener su definición.

50.       It is interesting to note that Lukács's thoughts on the use of descriptions, which he too abhors, are consonant with those of Díaz Fernández.

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51.       I wish to state my indebtedness to Herzberger who uses the idea of paradox to discuss Díaz Femández's aesthetic attitudes and conciliatory intentions toward referentiality and autoreferentiality. Herzberger's discussion, however, occurs at a different level of critical inquiry than mine, since it is basically concerned with tropes and representation, and not with form or novelistic design.

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52.       Quotes are from the 1951 edition of Jardín. The novel, neglected for decades, was reprinted by Seix Barral in 1993.

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53.       Few studies on Cuban feminist writers exist. See K. Lynn Stoner, From the House of the Streets. The Cuban Women's Movement for Legal Reform (1898-1940). Stoner's work includes a chapter on the feminist journalists. See also Susana Montero, and de Jongh, Gender and Controversy and Women's Rights.

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54.       Anderson writes that the Paradise story deals with the question of why man, God's creature refuses to acknowledge the sovereignty of his Creator. The story thus portrays man's rebellion against divine authority by grasping for the fruit of the forbidden tree. Man's defiant act brings in its train a sense of guilt and the attempt to rationalize the act by shifting blame to the woman or the serpent (174-75).

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55.       The meaning of the Hebrew word adam is man (Anderson 174).

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56.       The only reflection in the mirror is that of the friso que representa combates de monstruos, guerreros acometidos por dragones y vuelos de grandes aves negras (symbols of death and destruction). It is the last part of the house Bárbara sees upon her return and before it collapses.

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57.       In this interview Loynaz states: ...el jardín que describo en mi novela, más que jardín es una selva. Un jardín abandonado donde jamás entró otra mano que la de la Naturaleza... (Simón 56).

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58.       To escape to the promise of love and freedom, Bárbara must open a door and cross the garden (261). Passage through a doorway (crossing) invites association with a rite of passage, which, according to Biruté Ciplijauskaité, en las novelas femeninas frecuentemente significa un paso hacia la liberación (176).

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59.       A excepção, está claro, é o caso de falantes conscientes da pronúncia estrangeira e que a imitam.

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60.       Nas nossas transcrições fonéticas representaremos as variantes palatalizadas de /s/, /z/, /d/, e /t/ ([], [], [], e [] respectivamente), quando aplicáveis, de acordo com o padrão de pronúncia da maioria dos brasileiros.

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61.       Há, então, convergãncia de dois fonemas em inglês (// e //) num só nos empréstimos em português (//), como em checapé (de checkup) e chute (de shoot). É interessante notar, no entanto, que o cíao italiano, usadíssimo no Brasil, se diz sempre com [], o qual geralmente se representa na escrita com Tch (tchau).

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62.       O ràs vezes serve, popularmente, para representar esse som, como no nome Caravana Rolidéi (Holiday) no filme Bye Bye Brasil. Embora o líder [469] da tropa depois confesse que eles eram burros, pois holiday se escreve com y em vez de i, nada diz a respeito da consoante inicial. Também o som do ch do alemão pode chegar a associar-se, popularmente, como r, como se verifica no nome dum bar no Rio de Janeiro chamado Johann Sebastian Bar.

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63.       Embora esta palavra normalmente se escreva em português como no inglês, o poeta popular Curió das Alagoas representa-a com a ortografia impixmem [-pí-m ] (Veja 26 No. 42 [20 out. 93]56).

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64.       Dá-se o caso de existirem duas pronúnicas da marca de automóveis Ford: [fór] e [fór- i].

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65.       Pelo menos como vogal tônica, pois a pronúncia do a postônico, especialmente a final de palavra, se aproxima ao [] do inglês.

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66.       No caso dos empréstimos do francês, onde não se aplicam os elementos de tonicidade que vigoram nas outras línguas latinas principais e em inglês, o português acentua segundo suas próprias regras (por exemplo, o segundo i de limusine e o segundo a de passagem são tónicos). Nos casos em que as palavras terminam em sílaba com som vocálico em francês, essa sílaba se acentua em português: batom, dossiê, gigolô, purê.

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67.       No caso de palavras terminadas em -ing, como já vimos, se trata de perda de consoantes e nasalação de [i] nos empréstimos: [már-ke-t, ó-p]; terminam, portanto, em vogal nasal.

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68.       Curiosamente, a ortografia quitinete, flagrada na revista Veja, pressupõe a palatalização do primeiro t para poder aproximar-se à pronúncia do ch de kitchenette.

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69.       É de esperar-se que exemplos vindos de categorias de índole basicamente funcional, como pronomes, preposições, conjunções e artigos, não se adotem como empréstimos, mas sim os que vêm das de índole nocional, sobretudo substantivos e verbos.

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70.       Exemplos do japonês reforçam a regra: O quimono o saquê, mas a gueixa.

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71.       Gilete de gênero masculino quando se refere, pejorativamente, a uma pessoa.

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72.       E sanduíche, na Amazônia.

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73.       Alguns substantivos, porém, podem empregar-se de maneira adjetival; e. g., em tempo recorde.

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74.       Segundo Aurélio Buarque de Holanda: blefebluff (210), blefar blefe + -ar (210), drible dribble (492), driblar to dribble (492), plugueplug (1101), e plugar to plug (1101). Segundo Antenor Nascentes: blefebluff(104) e driblar to dribble (255); Nascentes não trata blefar, drible, plugar nem plugue.

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75.       Mantém-se masculino, no entanto, vernissage, como em francês.

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76.       Este vocábulo francês vem do inglês wagon; português percebe a segunda sílaba como a tônica (veja nota 8).

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77.        Cressey (1978), Lozano (1979), Harris (1984), and Branstine (1991), for example, contain detailed analyses of the Spanish voiced obstruents and spirantization. [481]

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78.        I am indebted to Dr. Donald Myers of the University of Arizona for his help in running the statistical analyses.

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79.       Illustrative plates, video reproductions, or even laminated enlargements of paintings work just as well as slides. An alternative to the conventional slide projector is the relatively new twelve-inch screen/slide viewer combination. It will project a slide onto its built-in video monitor, and it can be seen without having to darken the room. The instructor can also use a standard opaque projector to show non-transparent reproductions as large as eight and a half by eleven inches in a darkened room. The Highsmith Audiovisual Equipment and Supplies catalog contains information on projection equipment and slide storage systems.

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80.       Emotional reactions to learning and the personalization of knowledge are a legitimate part of the classroom experience. Wurzel (8) claims that our scientific, technologically-based Western culture often tends to devalue the subjective and dehumanize the formal education process. Sikkema and Niyekawa (34) also decry the lack of emotional involvement in their discussions of passive versus active understanding of cultural differences. So often the typical student comes away from a foreign language class with only a passive or intellectual understanding. An active understanding, on the other hand, requires development at the gut level of an attitude of acceptance, respect, and tolerance of cultural differences (3-4), a goal that is difficult to achieve through anything less than foreign living experience. Although only a minority of language students can afford this type of experiential education, viewing slides can serve as an enjoyable and inspiring introduction to many aspects of culture.

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81.       A valuable bibliographical tool is Havlice's two volume World Painting Index. One volume lists the titles of paintings (in English) and the names of the artists who painted them. The other features a numbered bibliography of works containing illustrative plates and lists painters and titles followed by numbers that correspond to the appropriate entries in the bibliography. When I refer to a painting not in Havlice's index, I will indicate another source. Otherwise, page numbers referring to Havlice appear parenthetically after the name of the museum housing the work of art. Translations of titles to Spanish are mine.

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82.       Westphal (87), who quotes Stern's remarks about how it is impossible to separate culture from language, claims: No matter what the foreign language teaching approach is, the cultural aspects of language will be unavoidably present because of a very simple reason: Those aspects are inherent to language and language use. In other terms, it is virtually impossible to teach or learn any language without teaching and learning its socio-cultural aspects, no matter how devoid of these we think our teaching or learning is. He goes on to say that the main issue is what socio-cultural aspects to teach and how to present them. For some possible answers to this question, see Ortuño, Cross-Cultural Awareness.

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83.       Some bodegones by Velázquez are La sirvienta or La mulata (Havlice 1161), Vieja friendo huevos (1162), and El aguador de Sevilla (1163). Examples by Murillo include Niños comiendo melones y uvas and Niño con perro (Havlice 831). For Meléndez' still-life paintings see Havlice 779.

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84.       Velázquez' and Carreño's portraits of the Spanish royal family provide a wealth of materials from which to choose. One particularly good example of the social underclass which stands in stark contrast to the extravagantly attired royalty, and which at the same time gives an almost journalistic testimony to the Baroque artists' interest in slice-of-life realism, is Jose de Ribera's El niño cojo (Louvre). For a translation of the Latin inscription in the painting and additional information see Pérez 368.

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85.       See Everett W. Hesse, Calderón and Velázquez, Hispania, 35 (1952): 74-82. Velázquez, who was a personal friend of the Marques de Spínola, did not witness [510] first the scene that he painted, but as Professor Hesse (76) explains: 'it is virtually beyond doubt that Velázquez was acquainted with Calderón's drama.'

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86.       Painting and poetry were also closely intertwined during the Golden Age. Velázquez' teacher. Francisco Pacheco, was a painter-poet, as were Fernando de Herrera and Juan de Jáuregui, to whom Cervantes' famous portrait is attributed. Velázquez painted Góngora, who in turn wrote verses for El Greco*s tomb. Pacheco was hailed as a great artist by poets Baltasar de Alcázar and Francisco de Quevedo (Hesse 74). Also see J. Brown, A Community of Scholars, in Images 21-43.

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87.       The notion of gain or general reward in language learning fuels the self-esteem -motivation- risk cycle (Beebe, 44, 61). A frequent complaint about the audio-lingual method is that it is low gain or boring because students cannot freely talk about what they want to.

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88.       Murillo's painting might also be interpreted from a less innocent perspective, namely that of a solicitation scene. The young girl might well be a prostitute luring a potential client in the street into a house of ill repute (Walker 244).

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89.       Two high-school texts which incorporate paintings into the teaching of language and literature are Galería hispánica and Tesoro hispánico, and on the university level, Literatura y arte.

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90.       See Norine D. Cashman and Mark M. Braunstein, ix: The Slide Buyer's Guide is designed to assist curators, librarians, teachers, and scholars in identifying sources of slides depicting art and architecture. The vendors listed are evaluated, whenever possible, on the quality of the slides offered, the completeness and accuracy of the identification of the images, and the service rendered in filling orders. The guide is intended to enable purchasers of slides to make wise choices in allocating their acquisition funds. With 510 entries of international vendors, this is also a good source for slides of Latin American paintings, should the instructor wish to focus on New World art, history, and culture.

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91.       Por ejemplo, el libro de Haro, Sigler y Bennett, que por su énfasis en temas de cultura hispana me hubiera gustado utilizar, tiene 464 páginas.

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92.       Muchos libros proponen temas como descripción de amigos y familia, alimentos, salud, transporte, actividades favoritas, e ir de compras, que no son más que repeticiones de lo estudiado en el nivel elemental o el nivel elemental-intermedio.

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93.       Compárese, por ejemplo, los libros de nivel intermedio de Jarest y Robinson, de Ascarrunz Gilman y Zwerling y de Labarca y Hendrickson.

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94.       Por supuesto hay muchos factores más que influyen la motivación de los estudiantes, como la personalidad del profesor, la atmósfera en clase, los progresos que los estudiantes experimentan, y las notas.

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95.       Como libro de gramática para nivel intermedio, se recomienda el de Fernández, Fente y Siles; para nivel superior, el de Tarr y Centeno.

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96.       Ethnic group is to be taken as any religious, mother-tongue, national-origin, or regional category of culturally distinct persons, regardless of the group's size (minority or majority), social power (subordinate or dominant), or when its members immigrated to th[e] country (immigrant, native-born, or indigenous) (Allen 1990,6).

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97.       Winant (1992) contains more information concerning terminological fluctuation.

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98.       Conklin (1962,128-29) explains in depth the idea of a folk taxonomy, while Anderson (1973, 181-82) defines polysemy as redundancy in meaning without which there would be no metaphors and metonymy as the use of a word for another with which its meaning is closely aligned, for example, chair and professorship.

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99.       Bynon (1977), Lehmann (1973), and Ullmann (1962, 1974) offer discussions of lexical, semantic, or conceptual field in folk taxonomies.

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